1. With approximately 400,000 casulaties, the War of the Triple Alliance was the bloodiest war in the history of the Americas. It was fought between an alliance of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against which country?
2. With names deriving from the Old Norse for 'island in the stream' and 'swine island' respectively, which two Scottish islands are situated in the Pentland Firth between Caithness and the Orkneys?
3. Also known as St John's Bread, Ceratonia siliqua is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean. Its edible fruit was traditionally eaten on the Jewish holiday of Tu Bishvat but is most commonly used in the West as a healthy alternative to chocolate. What is its common name?
4. Found in Wiltshire and composed principally of chalk and standing 130ft high, what is the name of the tallest prehistoric man-made mound in Europe?
5. A former 'University Challenge' contestant, by what name is the soap-box orator and eccentric Ian Brackenbury Channell now better known?
6. In June 2006, what names were given to Pluto's two newly discovered moons?
7. Which moon in our solar system, the only large moon known to have a retrograde orbit, is now thought to be a captured object from the Kuiper Belt?
8. Which 14th Century painter and architect, a pupil of Giotto, is credited with the design of the Ponte Vecchio in Florence?
9. What was the name of the Danish newspaper that caused controversy in 2005 after it published a series of editorial cartoons depicting the prophet Muhammad, causing protests across the Muslim world?
10. Voted the Best French Film of the Century in a poll of 600 French critics and professionals in 1995, which film by French director Marcel Carné, described upon its release as the French answer to 'Gone With the Wind', tells the story of the beautiful Garance and the four men who fall in love with her?
11. One of the four 'imperial cities' of Morocco, which city, named after a Berber tribe, was the capital of Morocco under the reign of Moulay Ismail in the late 17th and early 18th Centuries before its relocation to Rabat?
12. 'La vida es sueño' (Life is a Dream) is a comedic drama and, perhaps, the best known work of which Spanish playwright of the Golden Age?
13. The ancient Assyrian capital Nineveh stood in which modern-day city on the east bank of the Tigris?
14. Who are traditionally (but often controversially) credited with the invention of the following machines of the Industrial Revolution: a) spinny jenny b) power loom c) spinning mule d) spinning frame e) flying shuttle
15. Launched in 1798, what was the name of the Royal Navy ship that transported Napoleon Bonaparte to St Helena in 1815?
16. Issued by Tsar Alexander II in 1876, the Ems Ukaz banned the use of which language in print, save those wishing to reprint existing documents?
17. The Czech automobile manufacturer Škoda has its headquarters in which city on the Jizera river?
18. The Deutsches Museum is the world's largest museum of technology and science and attracts well over 1 million visitors per year. In which city could you visit it?
19. This Bulgarian revolutionary and ideologist led the Bulgarian struggle for independence from Ottoman rule during the 19th Century before being hanged by the Ottoman authorities in Sofia on 19 February 1873. A top soccer team in Sofia are named after him and in February 2007 he was the named the 'Greatest Ever Bulgarian' in a national television poll. What was his name?
20. And which Prince of Moldavia (1457-1504), remembered as an ardent defender of Christianity and sanctified by the Romanian Orthodox Church, was voted the 'Greatest Ever Romanian' in a similar poll?
And the answers:
2. STROMA & SWONA
4. SILBURY HILL
5. THE WIZARD (OF NEW ZEALAND)
6. NIX & HYDRA
8. TADDEO GADDI
10. LES ENFANTS DU PARADIS (or CHILDREN OF PARADISE)
12. PEDRO CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA
14. a) JAMES HARGREAVES b) EDMUND CARTWRIGHT c) SAMUEL CROMPTON d) RICHARD ARKWRIGHT e) JOHN KAY
15. HMS NORTHUMBERLAND
16. UKRAINIAN (or LITTLE RUSSIAN)
17. MLADÁ BOLESLAV
19. VASIL LEVSKI
20. ŞTEFAN CEL MARE (STEPHEN III)